Your charming curly little hornet with a concentrated expression of the face recites: "Nasa Taya just pachelo uloila in the esk myasik"? Of course, if a baby is 1-2 years old, then a similar reading of the famous poem by Agnes Barto causes only a smile from parents, but if a child is already 5-6 years old, then the situation takes a rather serious turn. How to respond to such manifestations of “fiction defects” in a child and to whom of the specialists you need to contact if you have noticed problems with pronunciation in your baby, we will try to find out in our article.
To begin with, let's define at what age the physiological children's immaturity of the speech apparatus turns into serious problems, which can be dealt with with a speech therapist or a pathologist.
So, at the age of 1 year the baby should be able to speak from 5 to 10 words. Ifhe says none- this is an alarming signal, but when a childsilent and in 3 yearsIt is simply impossible not to overlook this childish “feature”.
By three years, the child is already operating with small phrases, and if your baby still speaks in a monosyllabic manner, this is a signal for a visit to a speech therapist. It is also necessary to pay attention to the child’s speech, if after three years the childincorrectly utters one or more sounds, a visit to a speech therapist is also better not to postpone.
Inna Bass, speech therapist: “Parents often wait until the child is 3 years old, and he will speak himself, but these expectations are rarely met, and the loss is more difficult to catch up. If the parents do not help the child to master it at an early age, this can lead to the appearance of a number of consequences of speech underdevelopment. It is best to manage the process of mastering speech at an early age, during the babble period. Often, the reason for the child’s long silence is that the parents do not always have time to study with the child, and sometimes they simply don’t have enough desire. ”
Most often children haveproblems with the pronunciation of sounds“P”, “s”, “s”, “ts”, “sh”, “g”, “p”, “ch”, “l”, in the formation of which the front part and the tip of the tongue take part, and the movements of the tongue must be very small and accurate.Also, the poor structure of the articulation apparatus, such as a shortened hyoid bridle, a massive tongue, a high palate, or an incorrect bite, can be the cause of a poor sound pronunciation. To understand the causes of defects in the child’s speech and to eliminate them will helpvisit to a speech therapist.
Read also: The child speaks poorly: advice to parents
So, the parents decided that the child should be shown a speech therapist. There is a logical question:exactly where to go?
First of all, goto the district clinic. Theoretically, such a specialist should be attached to each children's clinic. If the specialist is not in the district clinic, contact the city medical institutions of the relevant direction. Depending on the complexity of the specific problem, the speech therapist will either enroll your child for classes, or, if it deems it necessary, will send you to a speech therapy kindergarten.
Private specialist. In various developing speech centers, as well as in private, experts who can inspect your child, draw appropriate conclusions about the state of his speech, as well as conduct the required number of remedial exercises, take private receptions.One can learn about how professionally one or another speech therapist or defectologist works with children by reading the opinions of mothers who are confronted with the same problem by the visitors of profile forums.
Our mother forumwoman Marisabel writes:“Girls, I advise a speech therapist. True, I don’t know what district it is from, but the effect of the lessons is amazing, I’m so glad! My son with a phonetic speech disorder, so in two weeks she activated us C, Z, W, U, L, and most importantly, she taught us to speak R. walks. Now we speak all the words beautifully, and I'm just happy! Now, our speech therapist is working with a child colleague, they are also very satisfied. Now I advise everyone! ”
Also, speech therapists work in specializedspeech therapy gardenswhere several groups are organized with a small number of people in each or engaged with childrenin speech therapy groupsin ordinary preschool institutions.
Our mother forumwoman Evga tells:“To get into the speech therapy garden, you must pass a medical examination. But first you need to go to the regional speech therapist in the clinic, he gives direction to other specialists for examination: a neuropathologist, ENT, a psychiatrist, etc.The district commissions for the selection of children for speech therapy kindergartens work in the spring and autumn, and the city council the whole year. ”
Read also:If a child speaks poorly ...
So, you came to a specialist and he diagnosed the child. Let's see what the scary entry in the medical card means, because there arecertain types of speech defects:
Dyslalia- The most common violation of children's speech, when a child has phonetic defects in normal hearing and well-formed speech. The most frequent manifestations of dyslalia are abnormalities.pronunciations of whistling and hissing sounds(sigmatisms) or their difficult pronunciation (parasigmatisms). Among them are purely phonetic sigmatisms (interdental, lateral, labial-tooth, buccal, etc.) and parasigmatisms (impacted, whistling, hissing, etc.). The defect of dyslalia refers torotacismor colloquially "burry" andrhinolalia(nasal)
Stuttering- violation of tempo, rhythm and smoothness of speech due to the convulsive state of the muscles of the vocal apparatus. A child often repeats individual sounds, syllables or whole phrases,in unnatural stretching of sounds (with the clonic form of stuttering, sounds, syllables are repeated, for example: “mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm-ball”, “pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-steam-engine ", With the tonic form of stuttering often there are pauses in speech, for example:" m .... yachik "," aut ... obus ").
Maria Savinova, pediatrician, homeopath:"With the symptoms of stutteringFirst of all, you can turn to a pediatrician, and only then to a speech therapist, a psychologist and a neurologist. It is also worth going to speech development centers, there are several such in Kiev. In these centers, stuttering is treated using various techniques. ”
Stuttering is almost always accompanied by tension, anxiety and fear of speech, the baby has unnatural movements, facial grimaces or tics during a conversation, with which the stuttering child tries to overcome stuttering.
Read also: Stuttering in children: how to act parents
Rhinolalia(nasal) - disorder of sound pronunciation, resulting from excessive or insufficient in the process of speech resonance in the nasal cavity. Such a violation of resonance occurs from the wrong direction of the voice-breathing jet due to either organic defects in the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, soft and hard palate, or disorders of the soft palate.There are open, closed and mixed rhinolalia.
Rhinophony(Greek. rhinos nose + Greek. phönê voice) - nasal (nasal) tone of voice resulting from the wrong direction of the voice-breathing stream due to either mechanical defects of the nasopharynx, soft and hard palate, or disorders of the soft palate. Distinguish rhinophony closed and open.
Delayed speech development (ZRR)or general speech underdevelopment (OHP)- various complex speech disorders in which the formation of all components of the speech system is disturbed, i.e. sound side (phonetics) and semantic side (vocabulary, grammar). The diagnosis of "speech delay", as a rule, is used for a child under 5 years of age, and "general speech underdevelopment" is usually used for a child over 5 years old.
The disease is characterized by a violation in the child of pronunciation and distinction of sounds, a small vocabulary, difficult word formation and inflection, poorly developed coherent speech, can be observed in complex forms of children's speech pathology.
Features of ZRR and ONR: misuse of endings and mismatch of words,simplification of complex prepositions, improper formation of diminutive forms and syllable structure of words, sounds are pronounced correctly, except for some complex sounds: “p”, “l”; selects pictures for a given sound).
Dysphonia or aphonia- A disease that includes a complete or partial loss of voice. A person cannot speak or speak only in a whisper. The disease can be caused by both physiological and psychological reasons.
Tachilalia- accelerated pace of speech. With tachilalia, the patient makes about 20-30 sounds per second, which is about 2 times the normal rate of speech. Often, tachilalia is accompanied by a repetition (skip) of syllables that are not noticed by the speaker.
Bradilalia- slow speech rate due to difficulty in making dispersed sounds, in contrast tobradyphrasia- slow speech resulting from a weakened process of thinking.
Dysarthria- impairment of pronunciation, caused by insufficient functioning of the nerves that connect the speech apparatus with the central nervous system.In dysarthria, the mobility of the soft palate, tongue and lips is limited, which makes articulation difficult and the pronunciation of all groups of sounds suffers, the child has “blurred” speech, disrupted voice formation, rhythm, intonation and pace of speech.
Alalia- the lack or underdevelopment of speech in a child as a result of lesions of the speech areas of the cerebral hemispheres, injuries or diseases in the pre-speech period. Usually, in such cases, the child’s hearing is normal, the primary intellect is preserved, and reading and writing are difficult to master. There is motor alalia when the child understands speech, but sensory alalia does not know how to reproduce it, when the child does not understand someone else's speech; automatically repeats other people's words, for example, instead of answering a question, the child repeats the question itself.
Aphasia- complete or partial loss of speech, which occurs as a result of local brain damage.
Agrammatism- impaired speech, manifested in difficulties in generating or perceiving sentences.
Read also: A speech therapist for a child: when do you need help?
General recommendations for solving the problem with children's speech can not be given, becausecorrection of speech defects occurs entirely individuallyand first of all the speech therapist directs his workto eliminate the causes of appearancedata violations.
Both parents and children should be patient, because the successful outcome of treatment depends largely on perseverance and regularity of classes.
Our mother forumchankaNussy tells:“If you have any doubts about the work, ask the speech therapist to explain what exactly she does with the child, in what direction she is moving: either it is sounding, or work on the grammatical construction of speech, syllable structure, phonemic processes, sensory-motor development , logic or a bit of everything. Parents, if a child has similar problems, you should read and understand the specifics of his diagnosis, then you yourself can choose the necessary games and tasks for the child and control the work of specialists helping you. ”
When classes with a speech therapist have already begun, do not neglect his recommendations and hope that the specialist will fix everything himself, without the participation of parents. Get ready for hard work, be sure to do all homework with your child.
If your baby has the wrong pronunciation of only one sound, the result will not be long in coming, and you will get by with several sessions with a speech therapist. But in the case when the speech defect is associated with deviations in the development of the child, it will be necessary to be engaged for a longer period of time.
Important nuance:the qualifications of each speech therapist are different, some work only on sound production, and do not take up difficult cases, each specialist also has his own work method and experience, on the basis of which he draws certain conclusions. If you have any doubts about the professionalism or the diagnosis made by the speech therapist, you can always contact another specialist and, based on several opinions, make the right decision and draw the necessary conclusions regarding the treatment of the child.
For pronouncing a syllable, a series of syllables, words, sentences by the facial muscles, a complex motor program is required, which requires some training, sometimes lengthy, especially if it is necessary to break the old stereotype of the wrong pronunciation.Therefore, at home, when working with such children, it is necessary to “program” the necessary articulation movements, to monitor the smoothness and correctness of their performance, according to the recommendations of the speech therapist. Be sure to remind your child to watch his speech himself and, if possible, correct mistakes without your instructions.
It is necessary to study at home daily, preferably in front of a mirror, so that the child can see himself and begin with a speech therapy massage for the face, lips, tongue and articulation gymnastics. If the speech therapist has given you any study guide, read it carefully and if you don’t understand any requirements, ask for an additional explanation or see how the specialist does this in classes with the child.
Our mother forumchankaGURZA tells:“When we put the sound“ p ”to the child, we worked a lot at home, where the main exercise is to make the tongue vibrate. Here, say the “rrr” sound loudly and longly and you yourself will feel the vibration. To do this, you need to take a blunt, not scratching wand (I took the sharp end of a teaspoon) and drive it quickly, quickly under the tongue.The child should be put on his back and asked him to try to pull “dy-dy-dy”. When vibration occurs, you will hear it. With vibration, the sound “d” will automatically change to “p.” After this, it is necessary to “start the motor” with a wand and remove it. Ask the child to “pull” the sound himself. When it will turn out, you need to ask him to try to "start a motor." Much has been written about this. Children do not like the procedure at first, but if at least once “rr-r” appears, interest and excitement appear ”.
The formation of correct speech in the baby and work on the elimination of the defects that have arisen is a serious and responsible task.Together with a good specialist, you will surely achieve remarkable results, and your kid will speak cleanly, clearly and distinctly.