Electric cars

Electric cars

We live in the most real ocean of energy, itsurrounds us everywhere. Even a fixed stone lying on the road can potentially do work. Sometimes it's hard to believe, but the energy is one. It only transforms, changes its nature. It is this property that is used by human-made electrical machines.

If electric energy is supplied to the input, andoutput is transformed into mechanical work in the form of shaft rotation, then it can be said with certainty that this is an engine. In turn, the conversion of mechanical work into electricity is entrusted to the generator. An important feature is the fact that the same electrical machines are characterized by the ability to function as a consumer (motors) and a generator (generator) of electricity. This is due to the same device. However, due to the design features, the operation in the "non-native" mode is characterized by a lower efficiency.

DC electric machinesare divided into two classes: inductor and collector. The most common were the second (a sign of the presence of a brush mechanism). The principle of operation is the following: a permanent magnet is placed on the stationary part of the machine (stator), creating lines of field strength.

The armature winding can be represented as consisting ofset of frames of copper wire, connected in such a way that the beginning and the end are displayed on opposite lamellas of the collector. From the outside to these conclusions a constant voltage is applied by means of graphite brushes. And if there is a closed circuit, then an electric current will appear. Moving charge carriers generate around themselves a magnetic field of nature that begins to interact with the stator field. As a result, there is a force that causes the anchor to rotate. Only the main points are described, but they are enough to understand how electric DC machines work. Particularly worth noting is only a universal collector motor having the design inherent in DC machines, it is capable of operating from a household power network of 220 V. This is possible due to the serial method of connecting the armature and the field windings. In household electric power tools they are used.

Electric AC machinesstructurally more simple and reliable, and the cost price of their production is lower. They are subdivided into synchronous ones, in which the mechanical speed with which the rotor revolves coincides with the frequency of the stator field circulation, as well as asynchronous varieties in which the rotor lags behind the field (slips). The first is more rational to use at capacities of more than 100 kW.

The simplest electric machines of alternating currentare represented by three-phase asynchronous with a squirrel-cage rotor (squirrel cage). On the stator, three windings are shifted one against the other by 120 °. It is to them that an alternating current of the corresponding phases is applied. The rotor has its own winding, short-circuited, thereby forming a circuit for the passage of the induced current. It is necessary to apply voltage to the pole-coils of the stator, as a magnetic field is generated around them - this is one of the basic properties of directed movement of electrons. And since the current is variable, the field turns out to be rotating. Its tension lines cross the turns of the rotor winding and create an induced current (we apply the law of electromagnetic induction). And once there were movements of particles with a charge, then around them, in turn, a magnetic field also appears. It also rotates (you can find the direction using the rule of the drill). As a result, there are two magnetic fields inside the machine body. Further everything is simple: thanks to Ampere's law, a force appears that tends to displace the windings, and since the rotor shaft is fixed to the bearings, the force creates a torque. To do the work, it only remains to connect the actuator to the shaft.

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  • Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

    Electric cars

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