Consider the features of the comedy that he createdFonvizin ("The Minor"). An analysis of this work is the subject of this article. This play is a masterpiece of Russian literature of the 18th century. This work is included today in the fund of Russian classical literature. It affects a number of "eternal problems". And the beauty of a high syllable attracts many readers today. The title of this play is associated with the decree issued by Peter I, according to which it is forbidden for "underprivileged" (young noblemen) to enter the service and marry without education.
As early as 1778, the idea of this comedy arose in herauthor, who is Fonvizin. "Nedorosl", the analysis of which we are interested, was written in 1782 and in the same year was presented to the public. We should briefly outline the time of the creation of the play that interests us.
During the reign of Catherine II, Fonvizin"The Minor". The analysis of the heroes presented below proves that they were heroes of their time. The period of Catherine II's reign in the development of our country is connected with the domination of the ideas of an enlightened monarchy. They were borrowed by the Russians from the French Enlightenment. The Empress herself contributed to the dissemination of these ideas, their great popularity among the educated philistinism and nobility. She, as is known, corresponded with Diderot, Voltaire, d'Alembert. In addition, Catherine II opened libraries and schools, supported the development of art and culture in Russia in various ways.
Continuing to describe the comedy that DI created. Fonvizin ("Nedorosl"), analyzing its features, it should be noted that, as a representative of his era, the author, of course, shared the ideas prevailing at that time in the gentry society. He tried to reflect them in his work, in front of readers and viewers, revealing not only positive moments, but also pointing out errors and shortcomings.
Analysis of the comedy "Minor" Fonvizin requiresConsider this play as part of the cultural era and literary tradition. This work is considered one of the best examples of classicism. In the play, there is a unity of action (it does not find minor storylines, only the struggle for Sophia's hand and her possessions is described), places (characters do not move for long distances, all events take place either around the House of the Prostakovs, or inside it) and time no more than a day is occupied by all events). In addition, he used "speaking" surnames, which are traditional for the classic play, Fonvizin ("Nedorosl"). Analysis shows that, following tradition, he divided his characters into positive and negative. Positive - this Pravdin, Starodum, Milo, Sofia. They are opposed to Prostakov, Mitrofan, Skotinin DI Fonvizin (the play "The Nedorosl"). Analysis of their names shows that they give the reader to understand what features in the image of a character are prevailing. For example, the personification of morality and truth in the work is Pravdin.
"Minor" at the time of creation was an important stepforward in the development of the literature of our country, in particular, dramaturgy. Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin created a new genre of comedy sociopolitical. It harmoniously combines a series of sarcastic, ironic, laughter realistic scenes from the life of some ordinary representatives of high society (nobility) with sermons on morality, virtue, the need to educate the human qualities that were characteristic of enlighteners. Instructive monologues in this case, the perception of the play is not burdensome. They complement this work, as a result of which it becomes deeper.
The play is divided into 5 actions, the author of which -Fonvizin ("The Minor"). Analysis of the work involves a description of the organization of the text. In the first act, we get acquainted with the Prostakovs, Pravdin, Sofya, Mitrofan, Skotinin. Character characters appear immediately, and the reader realizes that Skotinin and Prostakov are negative characters, while Sophia and Pravdin are positive. In the first action there is an exposition and a fastening of this work. In the exposition we get acquainted with the heroes, we learn that in care of the Prostakovs lives Sophia, who are going to give out for Skotinin. Reading a letter from Starodom is a play plot. Sophia now turns out to be a rich heiress. From day to day her uncle comes back to take the girl to her.
The analysis of the work will be continued with a description of howevents developed. 2 nd, 3 rd and 4 th actions are their development. We get acquainted with Starodum and Milo. Prostakov and Skotinin try to please Starodum, but their flattery, falsity, ignorance and a huge thirst for profit only repels. They look stupid and funny. The most ridiculous scene of this work is a survey of Mitrofan, during which the stupidity of not only this young man, but also his mother is exposed.
The fifth action is the culmination and denouement. It should be noted that the opinions of researchers about what point should be considered a culmination vary. There are 3 most popular versions. According to the first, this is the kidnapping of Prostakov's Sophia, according to the second, reading Pravdin's letter, which says that the estate of Prostakova passes under his care, and, finally, the third version - Prostakov's fury after she understands her own impotence and tries to "recoup "on their servants. It is true that each of these versions, since it considers from different points of view the product of interest to us. The first, for example, highlights the story line dedicated to the marriage of Sophia. The analysis of the episode of Fonvizin's comedy "Nedorosl", connected with the marriage, indeed, makes it possible to consider it key in the work. The second version considers the play from the socio-political point of view, highlighting the moment when justice triumphs in the estate. The third focus is on the historical, according to which Prostakova is the personification of the formerly weakened principles and ideals of the old nobility, who, however, do not yet believe in their own defeat. This nobility, according to the author, is based on ignorance, lack of education, and low moral standards. During the denouement, everyone leaves Prostakov. She had nothing left. Pointing to it, Starodum says that these are "worthy fruits" of "maliciousness."
As we have already noted, the main characters clearlyare divided into negative and positive. Mitrofan, Skotinin and Prostakov are negative heroes. Prostakova is a woman looking for profit, uneducated, rude, domineering. She can flatter for the benefit. However, Prostakova loves her son. "Shadow" of his wife appears Prostakov. This is a weak-willed character. His word means little. Skotinin is the brother of Mrs. Prostakova. He is just an uneducated and stupid man, rather cruel, like his sister, an avid kid. For him, a walk to the pigs on the farmyard is the best thing. Mitrophan is a typical son of his mother. He is a spoiled young man of 16, who inherited his uncle's love for pigs.
In the play, it should be noted that an important placethe issue of kinship and heredity Fonvizin ("Nedorosl"). Analyzing this question, let's say, for example, that Prostakov is only married to her husband (a "simple" person who does not want much). However, she is in fact Skotinina, akin to her brother. Her son absorbed the qualities of both her parents - "animals" of quality and stupidity from the mother and lack of will from her father.
Similar family ties can be traced andbetween Sophia and Starodum. Both of them are honest, virtuous, educated. The girl listens to her uncle carefully, respects him, "absorbs" science. The pairs of opposites create negative and positive heroes. Children are a spoiled stupid Mitrofan and meek and clever Sophia. Parents love children, but they are treated differently for their upbringing - Starodub talks about truth, honor, morality, and Prostakov only pampers Mitrofan and says that he does not need education. A pair of suitors - Milo, who sees the ideal and his friend in Sophia, who loves her, and Skotinin, counting the fortune that he will receive after marrying this girl. Sophia at the same time as a person he is not interested. Skotinin does not even try to equip his bride with comfortable housing. Prostakov and Pravdin are in reality a "voice of truth," original "auditors." But in the person of an official we find active force, help and real action, and Prostakov is a passive character. The only thing that this hero could say was to reproach Mitrofan at the end of the play.
Analyzing the work of Fonvizin, it becomesit is clear that each of the above-described pairs of characters reflects a particular problem that is revealed in the work. This is the problem of education (which is supplemented by the example of Kateikin-type teachers, as well as impostors such as Vralman), upbringing, fathers and children, family life, relations between spouses, relations of noblemen to servants. Through the prism of educational ideas, each of these problems is examined. Fonvizin, his attention, exacerbating the shortcomings of the era through the use of comic techniques, emphasizes the need to change the outdated, traditional, irrelevant foundations. They drag out foolishness and maliciousness into the swamp, likening people to animals.
As shown by our analysis of the playFonvizin "Nedorosl", the main idea and theme of the work - the need to educate the nobility in accordance with the ideals of enlightenment, the bases of which are still relevant today.