Probably everyone has ever heard of a chameleon, andI often wondered how the chameleon changes color. Chameleons are very amazing animals, whose roots will be introduced far into antiquity. The first chameleons lived 100 million years ago, at the same time as dinosaurs.
The most famous chameleons were purchased foraccount of their ability to change their skin color. But not many people know how this process is going on. The change in the color of the chameleon is related to the structure of its skin. In the deeper outer fibrous layer of the skin there are special branched cells, called chromatophores. Chromatophores are light-reflecting cells that are present in reptiles, fish, amphibians, cephalopods, which contain grains of pigments of different colors:
With the reduction of the processes of these cells, the grainpigments are distributed to the center of these very cells, and at the same time the skin of the chameleon acquires whitish, and even yellow, color. If the dark pigment is concentrated in the outer layer, the skin acquires a dark color. A combination of pigments leads to the emergence of all sorts of color shades. For example, green color appears when refracting light rays in the surface layers of the skin, containing guanine crystals. The color of the chameleon can change rapidly. From light, through yellow or green to purple, then completely to black and dark brown. Changes in coloring occur not only on the whole body of the chameleon, but also in individual areas, which are accompanied by the appearance or disappearance of various bands, spots of different colors.
Why does the chameleon change color? Changes in the color of the body of the chameleon occur both under the action of external stimuli - temperature, humidity and light, and as a result of thirst, hunger, irritation, fright, etc. Most often the chameleon's coloring is in harmony with the surrounding background, the locality in which it is located, the most masking the animal. Also, the chameleon uses changes in its color to communicate with other chameleons. For a more vivid idea of changing the color of the chameleon, you can see for yourself how the chameleon changes color, the video of this action is posted on the Internet in free access.