The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

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The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

The beginning of the 20th century was marked in Russia not only by numerous unrest, but also by sexual emancipation. It is noteworthy that the cult of the naked body is the little that the Soviet power inherited from the bourgeois world. Freedom of manners, however, did not last long.
The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

1.

Crimean bohemia
The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century
The author of the “cultural provocations” of the beginning of the century was the Russian poet, translator and art critic Maximilian Voloshin. At the naked parties in his house in Koktebel, the poet gathered many figures of the Silver Age. They called themselves "shifts." In addition, learning about the existence of nudist beaches in Europe, Voloshin took up the arrangement of such in the Crimea.
The society strongly condemned the shameless, especially the opera diva of the Bolshoi Theater Deisha-Zionitsky. In Koktebel, she was known by the nickname Crocodile.

2.

The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century
However, “groups of naked men of bronze color, in some ancient Greek chitons and wreaths on their heads,” walking along the Black Sea coast, did not go unnoticed in St. Petersburg. In 1914, the "Exchange Gazette" posted a note "M.Voloshin and the police officer, who said that the advocates of morality, were tired of making remarks, even installed two pillars with signs for men and for women on the beach opposite the house of Voloshin. Voloshin, not having suffered innovations, covered the inscriptions with white, for which he was forced to explain himself to the magistrate: “Without touching the pillar, I found it necessary to cover that indecent inscription with which it was decorated, because, I think, you know that this formula has a certain unambiguous meaning and is written only in known places (toilets. - Ed.). In doing so, I acted in exactly the same way as if obscene words were written on the fence, even if it was a stranger, but it was located against my windows. ”
Anyway, in the list of literary works of Voloshin two such names appear: “Glare. Nudity and Glare. Masks. Nudity". After the revolution, in the 1920s, the father of national nudism got permission from the People's Commissariat of Education for permission to call his Koktebel dwelling a free house of creativity. A nudist beach in Koktebel still exists.

3.

Soviet Union: "We are children of the sun and air"
The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century
In Soviet times, the country also wanted freedom, openness and excitement.Revolution broke out, then the Civil War. It would seem, what is there naturism? But naturalness found a response among the masses and turned into a sexual revolution in the USSR of the 20s.
The magazine "Murzilka", promoting the All-Union camp "Artek", put naked kids on the cover. Nudist beaches began to appear in the cities.
The most massive demonstrations took place in 1924-1925. About 10,000 people took part in them. Completely naked women and men, adorned with ribbons over their shoulders with the slogan "Down with shame", walked through the streets of Moscow. People shouted: “We, the Communards, do not need clothes covering the beauty of the body! We are children of the sun and air. We destroyed the feeling of shame! Look at us and see free men and women, true proletarians, who have thrown off the shackles of the symbols of bourgeois prejudice! ”
“Someone was laughing to tears, someone was spitting. The old women were baptized, saying: “Apocalypse! The end of the world! ”- and confusedly asked passers-by:“ What is it? And they will force us to undress? ”,” Recalls artist Natalya Severtsova-Gabrichevskaya.

4.

The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century
One of the ideologues of the movement was Lenin’s ally Karl Radek. Indeed, it was difficult to come up with a simpler way to equalize all people: proletarians, officials, peasants - than to take off their clothes.However, Radek, in fact, was really behind a healthy lifestyle.

5.

The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century
The people's commissar for health Semashko condemned this phenomenon both from the point of view of morality and hygiene: “Firstly, they are cruelly mistaken when they think that if you walk naked, grow hair and nails, this will be the real“ revolutionism ”... second, traveling in Moscow in the nude is completely unacceptable from a hygienic point of view. You can not expose your body to dust, rain and dirt ... The streets of Moscow are not the shores of the Black Sea ... Thirdly, it is debatable whether this wild innovation contributes to morality. We are protesting against “naked dances” and we cannot but protest against this innovation. ”
Newspapers scoffed. The Kharkov Red Wasp reported in the fall of 1924: “Naked again. The department of demographic statistics registered yesterday the appearance of 18 bare in Kharkov. Childbirth in all cases went well. "

6.

The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century
Mikhail Bulgakov editors of the capital "Hooter" requests to respond to the topic of the day. He pulls. Finally, he writes in his diary: “Friday. Bright sunny day. News: the other day completely naked people (men and women) appeared with bandages over their shoulders “Down with shame”.Vlezali in the tram. The tram was stopped, the public was indignant. ” Then, a month later, already in the newspaper, a worried reader, assuming that a whole train of naked people would leave for Gudermes, replied: “The actions of naked people should be understood as stupid acts. Indeed, in Moscow, two naked entered the tram. But we arrived only to the nearest police station. And now the “society” self-destructed for two reasons: firstly, the police cannot stand naked, and secondly, the frost begins. So wait for no one, naked will not come. Your brother M. B. ".
In fact, the society existed until the end of the 20s, and in 1936 nudism was officially banned in the USSR. In place of sexual freedom came sexual puritanism.

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  • The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century

    The cult of the nude body in Russia at the beginning of the XX century