Let's talk about how to determine the nature of the oxide. To begin with, all substances are divided into two groups: simple and complex. Simple substances are divided into metals and non-metals. Complex compounds are divided into four classes: bases, oxides, salts, acids.
Since the nature of the oxides depends on their composition,To begin with, we will define this class of inorganic substances. Oxides are complex substances, which consist of two elements. Their peculiarity is that oxygen is always located in the formula by the second (last) element.
The most common option isinteraction with oxygen of simple substances (metals, nonmetals). For example, during the interaction of magnesium with oxygen, magnesium oxide is formed, showing the basic properties.
The nature of the oxides depends on their composition. There are certain rules that call such substances.
If the oxide is formed by the metals of the main subgroups,Valence is not indicated. For example, calcium oxide CaO. If, in the compound, the metal of a similar subgroup is located first, which has a variable valency, then it must be indicated by a Roman numeral. It is inserted after the name of the connection in parentheses. For example, there are iron oxides (2) and (3). When composing the oxides formulas, it must be remembered that the sum of the degrees of oxidation in it should be zero.
Let us consider how the nature of the oxides depends ondegree of oxidation. Metals having an oxidation state of +1 and +2 form the main oxides with oxygen. A specific feature of such compounds is the basic nature of the oxides. Such compounds enter into chemical interaction with salt-forming oxides of non-metals, forming salts with them. In addition, the basic oxides react with acids. The product of interaction depends on the amount in which the starting materials were taken.
Non-metals, as well as metals with degrees of oxidationfrom +4 to +7, form with oxygen the acid oxides. The nature of oxides involves interaction with bases (alkalis). The result of the interaction depends on the amount in which the original alkali was taken. At its lack, acidic salt is formed as the product of the interaction. For example, in the reaction of carbon monoxide (4) with sodium hydroxide, sodium hydrogencarbonate (acid salt) is formed.
In the case of the reaction of an acidic oxide with an excess of alkali, the reaction product is the average salt (sodium carbonate). The nature of the acidic oxides depends on the degree of oxidation.
They are divided into salt-forming oxides (in which the degree of oxidation of the element is equal to the number of the group), as well as to indifferent oxides that are not capable of forming salts.
There is also an amphoteric nature of the properties of oxides. Its essence consists in the interaction of these compounds with both acids and alkalis. What oxides exhibit dual (amphoteric) properties? These include binary compounds of metals with a degree of oxidation +3, as well as oxides of beryllium, zinc.
There are different ways of obtaining oxides. The most common option is the interaction with oxygen of simple substances (metals, nonmetals). For example, during the interaction of magnesium with oxygen, magnesium oxide is formed, showing the basic properties.
In addition, oxides can also be obtained by the interaction of complex substances with molecular oxygen. For example, when burning pyrite (iron sulphide 2), two oxides can be obtained at once: sulfur and iron.
Another option for the production of oxides is consideredreaction of decomposition of salts of oxygen-containing acids. For example, the decomposition of calcium carbonate can produce carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (quick lime).
Basic and amphoteric oxides are formed when decomposing insoluble bases. For example, upon calcination of iron hydroxide (3), iron oxide (3) and water vapor are formed.
Oxides are a class of inorganic substances having wide industrial application. They are used in the construction industry, pharmaceutical industry, medicine.
In addition, amphoteric oxides are often used in organic synthesis as catalysts (accelerators of chemical processes).