The human musculoskeletal system consists of a combination of many bones and the muscles that connect them. The most important parts are the cranium, the thorax, the vertebral column.
Bones of the human chest are formed throughout life. In the process of growth and development of the body, this department of the skeleton is also transformed. There is a change not only in size but also in shape.
In order to know which bones form the thorax, general knowledge of all the components of the system is necessary. First, let's consider the locomotor system as a whole.
The human skeleton consists of two hundred bones,the total weight of which is measured in kilograms: 10 for men and 7 for women. The form of each detail is inherent in nature so that they can perform their functions, which are very many. Blood vessels that pierce the bones deliver nutrients and oxygen to them. Nerve endings contribute to a timely response to the needs of the body.
This huge complex can be considered for a long time and in great detail. Let's dwell on the basics. To make it easier to study the structure of a person, the skeleton is conditionally divided into 4 departments:
- frame of the trunk;
- vertebral column;
- upper and lower parts of the body.
And the backbone is the basis for the entire system. The spine is formed by five sections:
- the neck;
- the lower back;
- sacral region;
Bones of chest resembling a figurepyramids, contain and warn against external mechanical effects vital organs: a heart with blood vessels, lungs with bronchi and trachea branch, esophagus and numerous lymph nodes.
This department of the skeleton consists of twelvevertebrae, sternum and ribs. The first are the component parts of the skeleton. In order for the connection of the chest bones to the vertebrae to be reliable, the surface of each has an articular costal fossa. This method of fastening makes it possible to achieve great strength.
The sternum is a fairly common name for the bone located in front of the ribs. It is considered to be composite, it distinguishes three parts:
Anatomical configuration of the bones of the sternumvaries with time, this is directly related to the alteration of the position of the body and the center of gravity. In addition, the volume of the lung grows when this part of the skeleton is being formed. The transformation of the ribs with age makes it possible to increase the amplitude of the sternum and to breathe freely. Proper development of the department is very important for the normal functioning of the whole organism.
Thorax, photo of which can be seen inarticle, has the form of a cone and remains so until three to four years. At six, it varies depending on the development of the upper and lower zones of the sternum, increases the angle of inclination of the ribs. By the age of twelve or thirteen she is fully formed.
The human chest bone is affected byphysical activity and landing. Physical training will help it become wider and more voluminous, and incorrect landing (more about the posture of schoolchildren at a desk or computer table) will lead to the fact that the spine and all parts of the skeleton will develop incorrectly.
This can lead to scoliosis, stoop, and in some severe cases and to problems with internal organs. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct educational discussions with the child about the importance of posture.
When the question of which bones form the chest, the first thing they remember is them. Ribs are an important part of this department of the skeleton. In medicine, all twelve pairs are divided into three groups:
They have a flattened shape and a porous structure. The rib has cartilaginous and bony parts. The latter is defined by three divisions: the body of the rib, the head and the joint surface. All the ribs have the shape of a spiral plate. The more its curvature, the thoracic cage is more mobile, it all depends on the age and sex of the person.
During intrauterine development of a person inIn rare cases, an anomaly is observed that leads to the appearance of an additional rib in the neck or lumbar region. Also in mammals, the number of ribs is greater than that of a person, this is explained by the horizontal position of their body.
Now that we have figured out which bones form the thorax, we can talk about what tissues they are made of. They differ from each other not only functions, but also properties.
She isconstructs the skull, limbs and trunk. It is also important that bone tissue determines the shape of the body. It is divided into:
Her cells are of two types: osteoblasts and osteocytes. If you look at the composition of this tissue, you can see that on 33% it consists of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The rest is accounted for by inorganic substances, such as calcium, magnesium, fluoride and calcium carbonate and others. It is interesting that in our body there is citric acid, 90% of it is contained in bone tissue.
The bones of the chest are fastened together andmuscles of the skeleton with the help of cartilage and tendons. These are the types of connective tissue. It can be of different types. For example, the blood is also a connective tissue.
It is so diverse that it seems as if only she does everything in the body. Any cells of this kind perform a variety of functions, depending on what kind of tissue they form:
Depending on the functions, it is divided into:
The connection of the bones of the chest is carried out by a fibrous tissue from the first group.It has a loose texture that accompanies vessels, nerve endings. It fences the internal organs from each other in the cavity of the chest and abdomen.
The spine helps keep the back and is the support for soft organs and tissues. The spine and thorax are connected by an important function: it helps to keep the cavity in the desired position.
It is formed from thirty two to thirty four vertebrae, which have holes for the passage of the spinal cord. This allows us to protect the basis of our nervous system well.
Intervertebral disks consist of fibrouscartilage, which contributes to the mobility of the spine. An important requirement for it is considered the possibility of bending. Thanks to this, it is able to "spring", due to which, shocks, jerks during running and walking fade, protecting the bone marrow from concussions.
Since the musculoskeletal system consists mostly of bone tissue, then, knowing its role in the body, you can say the same about the basis of the body, and about the chest separately. So, the functions:
It is important to know what our body is made of and whatprocesses in it occur, what role this or that department of the skeleton plays, how to properly develop and strengthen it. This will help to avoid some ailments and live fully, doing sports and favorite things.